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The non-haematopoietic biological effects of erythropoietin
Studies have demonstrated that EPO and EPOR are expressed in a number of cell types including those within the cardiovascular and nervous system, suggesting that the effects of EPO extend beyond regulation of erythropoiesis.
Adv Pharmacol. 60:257, 2010.
The discovery of the tissue-protective activities of erythropoietin (EPO) has underlined the importance of some cytokines in tissue-protection, repair, and remodeling.
Front Immunol 2014; 5: 115.
The identification of Epo receptor (EpoR) in non-haematopoietic cells and tissues including neurons, astrocytes, microglia, immune cells, cancer cell lines, endothelial cells, bone marrow stromal cells, as well as cells of myocardium, reproductive system, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, pancreas and skeletal muscle indicates that Epo has pleiotropic actions.
Int J Cardiol. 171:116, 2014.
rhEPO and heart failure
Darbepoetin Alfa in Heart Failure Trial (RED-HF) study showed that increasing haematocrit concentrations with EpoR agonists (darbepoetin) do not reduce morbidity and mortality in anaemic HF patients.
Int J Cardiol. 2014 171(2):116-25.
It has not been unequivocally proven that further intensification of erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA) therapy actually leads to a comprehensive benefit for the patient, especially as ESAs are potentially associated with increased cerebro-cardiovascular events.
Kidney Res Clin Pract. 36:209, 2017.




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